Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions:

Learning means acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors. It is common to think of learning as something that takes place in school, but much of human learning occurs outside the classroom, and people continue to learn throughout their lives. Even before they enter school, young children learn to walk, to talk, and to use their hands to manipulate toys, food, and other objects. They use all of their senses to learn about the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells in their environments. They learn how to interact with their parents, siblings, friends, and other people important to their world. When they enter school, children learn basic academic subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. They also continue to learn a great deal outside the classroom. They learn which behaviors are likely to be rewarded and which are likely to be punished. They learn social skills for interacting with other children. After they finish school, people must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect their lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job. Because learning continues throughout our lives and affects almost everything we do, the study of learning is important in many different fields. Teachers need to understand the best ways to educate children. Psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other human-service workers need to understand how certain experiences change people’s behaviors. Employers, politicians, and advertisers make use of the principles of learning to influence the behavior of workers, voters, and consumers. Learning is closely related to memory, which is the storage of information in the brain. Psychologists who study memory are interested in how the brain stores knowledge, where this storage takes place, and how the brain later retrieves knowledge when we need it. In contrast, psychologists who study learning are more interested in behavior and how behavior changes as a result of a person’s experiences. There arc many forms of learning, ranging from simple to complex. Simple forms of learning involve a single stimulus. A stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight, sound, smell, touch, or taste. In a form of learning known as classical conditioning, people learn to associate two stimulus that occur in sequence, such as lightning followed by thunder. In operant conditioning, people learn by forming an association between a behavior and its consequences (reward or punishment). People and animals can also learn by observation - that is, by watching others perform behaviors. More complex forms of learning include learning languages, concepts, and motor skills.

Question: Getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job are mentioned in paragrapli 2 as examples of ________.  

A.

A. the changes to which people have to orient themselves                     

B.

B. the areas of learning which affect people’s lives  

C.

C. the situations in which people cannot teach themselves         

D.

D. the ways people’s lives are influenced by education  

Đáp án và lời giải
Đáp án:A
Lời giải:

Đáp án A

Dịch nghĩa: Kết hôn, nuôi con, tìm và làm việc được đề cập trong đoạn 2 làm ví dụ cho ________. A. những thay đổi mà con người phải có định hướng rõ ràng. B. lĩnh vực học tập mà gây ảnh hưởng đến cuộc sống con người. C. những trường hợp mà con người không thể tự dạy họ được. D. những cách mà cuộc sống của con người bị ảnh hưởng bởi giáo dục. Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở đoạn 2 “After they finish school, people must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect their lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job” - Sau such as là những ví dụ cụ thể cho nội dung phía trước, ở đây tác giả thêm ví dụ vào để làm rõ cho many major changes that affect their lives.    

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